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Korchagin Yu. A.27.12.2013

Human capital is the main factor of development innovative economy

Korchagin Yu. A.

Human capital is the main factor of development
innovative economy

1. Emergence of the notion of human capital

The concept of human capital (human capital, HC) and his theory emerged in the second half of the twentieth century, as a response of economic science to the challenges of time, the accelerated formation of innovative economy, post-industrial and information societies.
The role of professionals and knowledge workers in the modern economy and society enormously increased, and the role and share of unskilled labor, on the contrary, declined and continues to decrease with the intensified process of formation of the knowledge economy in which the share of human capital in national wealth in the most advanced and developed countries of the world is 80-90% of the national wealth /1/.
The process of replacing the physical and natural capital human capital in national wealth in developed countries, the prevalence of investments in HC over investment in physical capital - the typical processes of the second half of the XX and XXI century in the developed world, as well as rapidly developing countries, such as Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, China and others.
The creation of the theory of HC went from the lowest to the highest - from individual HC to the national.
The theory of individual HC created Theodore Schultz (the Nobel prize in Economics in 1979) and Gary Becker (1992).
Щульц made a significant contribution to the development of a theory of human capital at the initial stage of its development, its acceptance by the scientific community and promotion.
Schultz and Becker calculated for the first time demonstrated the benefits people with special education, special skills and knowledge before the people with a General secondary education in terms of income and raised the cost of education at the level of productive investment, and the education level of most important factor of development.
A significant contribution to the General theory of development and human capital, in particular, introduced and native of Russia, Simon (Simon) Smith (Nobel prize 1971), who first introduced in the economic theory and practice the concept of GDP. Among all necessary and sufficient factors in the development of Simon Kuznets singled out as the primary level of accumulated national human capital. And claimed that there is a certain threshold of existing national human capital, without which the transition to the next technological structure of the economy is impossible.
By Gary Becker, human capital is an aggregate of natural abilities and acquired knowledge, skills and motivation, efficient use of which contributes to the increase in income and other benefits to their owners.
Contribution to the development of the theory of human capital contributed E. Denison, R. Solow, J.. Kendrick, C. Fabrikant, I. Fischer, R. Lucas and other economists, sociologists, psychologists and historians. In Russia's contribution to development and promotion of the human capital theory made A. Podberyozkin, V. Klochkov, A. I. Yuriev L.G. Simkina, R. I. Kapelyushnikov and other
The concept of human capital is a natural extension and generalization of the concepts of the human factor, human resources, intellectual capital, and social capital, however, HC is the broader economic category.


2. Development of the theory of human capital

The impetus for the creation of the human capital theory was based on the statistics of growth in the economies of developed countries that exceed the calculations based on the account of classical growth factors.
Analysis of real processes of development and growth in the modern conditions and led gradually to the assertion of human capital as the main productive and social factors of development of modern economy and society.
The economic concept of «human capital» was formed gradually and the first phase was limited by the knowledge, skills and ability to work.
For a long time human capital is only regarded as a social factor of development cost factor, from the point of view of economic theory. It was believed that investments in education, in education are non-productive, expensive.
In the second half of the twentieth century, the attitude to human capital and education has changed dramatically.
Edward Denison (contributed by Robert Solow, John Kendrick and others) developed a classification of factors of economic growth. Of the 23 selected factors 4 relate to labor, 4 - to-capital, 1 - earth, 14 characterize the contribution of the NTP. The first place in importance Denison put the quality of the workforce. Labor productivity in the Denison essentially depends on education.
The scientific community appreciated the value of the theory of human capital for the world economy and science. For contribution into development of the human capital theory was awarded two Nobel prizes - Schultz in 1979 and G. Becker in 1992, that testifies to the extraordinary contribution of these scholars in economic theory. And, therefore, of Central importance of the concept of human capital at the present stage of world development.
So Theodore Schultz one of the first to introduce the concept of human capital as a productive factor . And did much to the understanding of the role of human capital as the main driver of the industrial and post-industrial economies and innovative information society.
The main results of investments in human Shultz believed accumulation of people's abilities to effective work, their effective creative activity in society, health, creativity, etc. He proved that human capital has the necessary attributes of a productive nature. HC can accumulate and play. For him applicable and modified the concept of depreciation.
Estimated Schultz, produced in the society of the total product of the accumulation of human capital has been used for 1/4, as followed from the most theories of reproduction of the XX century, and 3/4 of its total value.
G. Becker assessed the economic efficiency of education, especially for the worker. The additional income from the higher education, he defined as follows. Of the incomes of those who graduated from College, he read the income of workers with secondary education. Cost of education were considered as direct costs and opportunity costs - the loss of income during training. Returns to investment in education, Becker estimated as the ratio of income to expenses, having 12-14% annual increase of income for workers with tertiary education. Gary Becker was one of the first suffered the concept of HC on the level of the organization. He introduced the distinction between special and General investment in the individual. And highlighted the particular importance of special education, including the receipt of the organizations and firms of special knowledge and skills.

Special training of workers generates competitive advantages of firms, characteristic and significant features of its products and conduct in the markets, ultimately, her know-how, image and brand. Special training are interested first of all the firms themselves and the Corporation, and they Fund it. These works, Becker became the basis of a modern theory of the firm and competition .
G. Becker in the framework of human capital theory studied the structure of the distribution of personal income, age on the dynamics of inequality in the male-female wage etc. He proved and politicians, and businessmen on extensive statistical material that education is the Foundation of the growth of incomes and the employees and employers, and the state in General. As a result of financiers, businessmen, politicians began to consider investing in education as a promising investment income. And this has accelerated the development processes.
G. Becker in his works considered the employee as a combination of one unit of simple work and a known amount of embodied human capital in it. His salary (income) - as a combination of market price for its simple labor and income from investments into human investment. Moreover, the main part of the income to the employee, according to the estimates of Becker and calculations of other researchers, makes the human capital.
I. Fischer suggested for estimating the value of human capital to use the standard method of discounting . Set out in the interpretation of human capital to evaluate it investments are used directly in the current employees and their impact.
The broad definition of human capital includes components related to science, innovations, venture business, the institutional and organizational potentials, social sphere, public health, quality of life and favorable environment, security, information support, with the formation of the elite. And neither one of these elements it is impossible to exclude from the HC, they are interdependent. For example, if the lack of security specialists, they will not work effectively, and other components of the HC. Specialists will just leave to other countries and regions.
Factor analysis and experience of successful countries show that generate high-quality human capital is possible only at a complex and system approaches, when simultaneously all the components of the HC. And effectively, as are all the factors of their growth. As it was, for example, in Finland during the diversification and modernization of its economy, education, science, innovation system and the formation of the national HC.
Another approach to estimating human capital is to investigate the effects of investments in HC on GDP growth or national income. In this case, the mathematical model and the factor analysis of GDP growth. Mathematical tools for the analysis is the production function .
T. Schultz divided impact on the rate of growth of national income primary, secondary and higher education. J..
Морех, using his approach, received his education system in England gave contribution to the growth of national income 1951-61 were about 12%.

Close the model considered E. Denison. He received that the contribution of education in GDP growth in the USA for 1909-1929 biennium 12%, 1929-1956's. - 23%, for 1960-1980's. - 19%. Similar calculations he made some European countries .
Internal rate of return on investment in HC are built by analogy with the norms of profit on capital. There are two basic approaches to the calculation of rates of return. The first is based on the method Becker: income of higher education equal to the difference between the salaries of the graduate College and the employee who has graduated from high school.
J. Mintzer introduced a production function earnings», which describes the dependence of the logarithm of earnings person's educational level, employment, hours worked and other factors. He got what norm of return from industrial training are close to the standards of return of formal education.
Calculations of the number of researchers showed that the profitability of the human capital, as a rule, higher, than the physical. In the U.S. assessment of rates of return to primary education reached 50-100%, medium - 15-20%, higher by 10-15%. Mixed norm of return for various categories of workers, men, for example, are higher than in women. Studies for the countries of the world show that with the growth of per capita income, the efficiency of investments in HC decreases in countries with relatively low per capita GDP, while in developed and rich countries, growing due to the growth of labour productivity, impact of science, innovations and high technologies.
In result of studies of the effect of HC on national wealth, it was established that in the twentieth century, the accumulation of human capital outpaced the rate of accumulation of physical capital. According to the calculations E. Denison, GDP growth per capita in the US after the Second world war was 15-30% due to investments in education.
Here are some of the formulation of human capital.
According to Becker: the individual HC = additive due to increased General education + special in-depth education.
Such a narrow approach has become quite quickly upgraded and expanded. The researchers included in the human capital investment in education, health (medicine), environment (the quality of life of the population), in science.
One of the first settlements of HC broad interpretation of the completed world Bank.
Thus, in terms of the historical development of the theory and practice of human capital can be allocated stages of the narrow definition of HC, advanced and broad definition, when the HC included additional investments in quality of life, increasing the ease of environment, social capital, tools and conditions of intellectual work.
HC firm includes corporate work culture and ethics of personnel, customs and ethics of entrepreneurship of the company, the cumulative knowledge possessed by the organization through its professional staff, methodology, intellectual capital in the form of patents, software, know-how, architecture and relationships inside the company, external relations firm, which contribute to increase the size and quality of its HC, social capital, management, innovation, and organizational potential of the company.



3. Definition, kinds, types and structure HC

Currently in the theory and practice of human capital (HC) distinguish individual, corporate and national human capital.
Individual human capital is the accumulated stock of special and special knowledge, professional skills of the individual, allowing him to receive additional income and other benefits compared to someone without them.
Corporate human capital accumulated by the firm, the special and peculiar in comparison with competitors individual human capital, know-how, intellectual capital, special management and intelligent technologies, including computer and information technologies to improve competitiveness of the firm.
National human capital is part of the innovative (creative) labor, leading specialists of the accumulated knowledge accumulated by the innovative and high-tech share of national wealth, innovation system, intellectual capital, social capital and quality of life, providing in aggregate development and competitiveness of innovative part of the economy and the state on the world markets in the context of globalization and competition /1-4/.


The narrow and the broad definition of human capital

There are several definitions of human capital narrow (educational), extended and wide /1-8/. As already noted, socio-economic category of «human capital» was formed gradually. At the first stage in the composition of the HC include only investments in special education (narrow definition HC). Sometimes human capital in narrow definition called educational HC.
At the second stage in the composition of HC (extended definition) gradually incorporated (did it, including the world Bank experts in the evaluation of the HC and the national wealth of the countries of the world) investments in upbringing, education, science, health, information services, in culture and art.
At the third stage of development of the socio-economic category HC were added investment components in ensuring the security of the people (spun off from the life quality of the population because of its special importance, especially for Russia and other developing countries). In the preparation of effective elite, in the formation and development of civil society (cs). Improvement of effectiveness of the institutional service of HC, as well as investments in improving the quality of life and in the inflow of capital from outside the country.

The broad definition of national human capital is the culture, knowledge, health, professionalism, compliance and innovative creativity specialists, their social capital and quality of life and labor.

A basic component of the HC is the mentality of the people /1,2/, including, traditions and culture, attitude to work, family, law-abidance. On their historically greatly influenced by religion. Determinants of HC serve upbringing, education, health, knowledge, science, quality of life, competitiveness and economic freedom, the rule of law and the rights, security, mobility and creativity of business and citizens.
HC - synthetic and complex socio-economic category at the intersection of different disciplines and Sciences: Economics, psychology, sociology, computer science, history, medicine, pedagogy, philosophy, political science and other.
The core of the national HC are the best and competitive on the international level specialists, determine the growth and efficiency of the use of knowledge and innovation, the efficiency of entrepreneurial resource size and the efficiency of the innovation sector of the economy.
For the integral efficiency HC important as all of its components. Low quality of any of them reduces the overall quality of the HC. In this case, negative synergetic and multiplicative effects of the weakening of the effectiveness of HC while reducing the efficiency or quality of any component, as is currently the case in Russia.
In modern economy, the creative part of labor (creative class) constitutes the core of the existing national human capital (HC).
There is also a qualified workforce resource, ensuring the effective functioning of HC, Wednesday its functioning and tools of intellectual work. Performance HC significantly determine the culture and related work ethics and entrepreneurship.
From the point of view of innovative economy, development processes and GDP, human capital can be defined as follows:
Human capital is a part of the creative labor resources (creative class), their material high-quality provision of accumulated high-quality knowledge, the intellectual and the high technology, creating annually the share of innovative and science-intensive products in the GDP, which are competitive on world markets.
The cost accumulated HC is calculated in this case, the summation of the share of innovative products, services and high-tech products in GDP for the average working life of a generation for Russia to 30 years).
Human capital in monetary terms is the share of innovative economy and its security in the overall economy of the country.
This approach enables us to quantify the national human capital through the use of integrated country international indicators, which on one hand simplifies the calculations, and on the other - makes them more reliable.
At all levels of human capital - individual, corporate and national basis are special, specific knowledge, skills and technology, determining the competitive advantage of human capital to the appropriate level.
At all levels of human capital in its composition, also include additional qualified labour resources, quality of life, tools and technologies, to ensure realization of competitive advantages of the national Cheka, the effective functioning of the Cheka, both of the intensive factors of innovation activities, intellectual work and development.


National human capital

In the composition of the national human capital includes, in addition to national constituents, corporate and individual human capital and human capital of household /1-4/.
National human capital is formed through investments in education, culture, population health, improvement of professionalism, level and quality of life of the population. In science, knowledge and intellectual capital, social capital, entrepreneurial ability, information provision and security of citizens. In the economic freedom in its international definition of an instrument of intellectual labour, in the environment of functioning of the human capital as a factor of development of economy and society.
In this case, the social capital refers to communication, relationships and support from other people specialist contribute to an increased efficiency of its intellectual labor activity.
Human capital : the stock of knowledge, skills, experience, high, managerial and intelligent technologies, software flow of information in the form of knowledge, the material quality of life and work, are able not only to accumulate in the process of investing, but also financially and morally worn out.
That is, in a simplified sense, HC notion of «depreciation».
Human capital - intensive development factor, it is not subject to the law of diminishing returns when the right strategy of development of HC, economy, state and ST.
In the national wealth of developed countries HC prevails in terms of its share (value).
Human capital is an intensive synthetic and complex productive factor of development of economy and society, including creative human resources, the innovation system, high-performance accumulated knowledge, systems of professional information, tools intelligent and organizing labor, quality of life, environment and intellectual activity, which ensure the effective functioning of the HC and its high productivity.

Briefly: Human capital, creative professionals, intelligence, knowledge, quality and productive work and high quality of life.
Corruption and crime devalues knowledge, inhibits creativity and the creative energy of people, reduces the quality, efficiency and cost accumulated HC. Turns synergy in a negative factor for development in his brake.
In the criminal and corrupted country HC cannot operate effectively by definition. Even if it is «imported» external high-end Cheka, secured by its tributary. He or degrading getting involved in corruption and other counter-productive schemes or works inefficiently.
Finland on the basis of the theory and practice of human capital during the historically short period of time managed to go from raw materials mainly economy to the innovative economy. In order to create a competitive high technology, not refusing from the deepest processing of its main natural wealth of the forest. Finland managed to gain a leading place in the world in the rating of competitiveness of economy as a whole. Moreover, the income from timber processing products with high added value and created Finns its innovative technologies and products. They have not kept the dead weight of their income in the form of reserves in banks in the US and Europe in reserve and invest in their people, improving their health, education, increasing their creativity and quality of labour. Invested in infrastructure, improving the quality of life, HC and economy, high technology and new technology.
This was not because the theory and practice of HC implemented some sort of a magic wand, but because that is the response of economic theory and practice challenges, the challenges emerging in the bowels of the post-industrial economy in the second half of the twentieth century knowledge economy.
Development of a science, formation of information society to the fore as elements of a complex of intensive factors of development - human capital-nominated knowledge, education, health, quality of life of the population and leading specialists, determine the creativity and innovativeness of national economies.
Huge advantages in creating stable conditions for quality of life, creation and development of the knowledge economy, the information society, development of civil society have a country with its high-quality human capital.
That is, a country with an educated, healthy and optimistic population, competitive professionals in all kinds of economic activity, education, science, management and other areas.
The choice of HC as the main factor of development for a developing country, literally dictates systemic and integrated approach in developing the concept and strategies of both the human capital and new paradigms, concepts and strategy of development of the country. Requires linking them to other strategic planning documents.
Dictate this follows from the essence of the national Cheka as synthetic and complex factor of development. And this dictates a special emphasis on high quality and productivity of work, quality of life, work and instrumentation specialists, determine the creativity and the creative energy of HC.
Analysis of the processes of scientific and technical development shows that the HC, the cycles of growth and development are the main factors and drivers of the innovative wave development and of cyclical development of the world economy and society.
Gradually accumulated knowledge. On their basis to develop education and science. Was formed layer of highly professional scientific and technical, managerial and General intellectual elite, under which was a milestone in the development of the country.
Furthermore, the level and quality HC determine the upper limit of the development of science and economy. And without lifting the quality of the national HC to the level required by the innovation economy of quality and ethics labour jump in the innovation economy of the corresponding TUE and, especially, in the knowledge economy, it is impossible.
At the same time, the share of unskilled labor in the GDP of developed and developing countries is becoming smaller, and in technologically advanced countries it already is vanishingly small. Any work now in a civilized country requires education and knowledge.
Driver for the development of HC and innovative economy is competition in all activities.
Competition creates and selects the best specialists, effective management, improves the quality of HC.
Competition encourages entrepreneurs and management to create innovative products and services. Free competition, and economic freedom in its international definition of the main stimulants and growth drivers of quality and competitiveness of the national HC, the growth of knowledge production, the generation of innovations and creation of the effective innovative products.


Negative, passive and positive
human capital

The concept of a negative, passive and creative innovative HC help a better understanding and interpretation of the huge differences in cost, quality and performance of national HC countries of the world. These concepts introduced me /1-4/.
Main indicators and parameters of the national HC calculated on integral
макропоказателям and reflect the processes, the final characteristics and results at the macro level.
Introduction of types and characteristics of micro levels, at the level of the individual, the family and the organization disaggregating creature integration processes of human capital as a productive factor at all levels.
Individual negative human capital is the accumulated stock of special and specific knowledge,
псевдознаний, skills, moral and psychological deviations of the individual, allowing him to gain income and other benefits due to the illegal, immoral, fraudulent or incompetent activities that interfere with the creative activity of other persons and the creation of new wealth and income.
An individual with a negative HC - on set of the consumer, a destroyer and a dependent for the creative part of the population. Such an individual through the criminal, corrupt, fraudulent and other similar activities of lives by assigning a part of the national wealth, without making his personal contribution, and prevents the good work of others.
In the composition of the negative HC are incompetent managers and incompetent specialists in all types of activities,
лжеученые and лжеинноваторы causing harm education, science, economy and society.
Example of the negative HC at the individual level can serve as illiterate, Etc., academician Lysenko, who organized the persecution of genetics as a science, not only halt its emergence and development in the USSR and Russia, but also physically destroyed his denunciation of another academician, prominent biologist Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov, who developed vigorously genetics to his arrest.
Negative corporate human capital accumulated by the organization of negative individual human capital, obsolete, inefficient or false intellectual capital, obsolete and worn management and intelligent technologies that reduce the competitiveness of the organization and lead to losses, to uncompetitive products and services to negative outcomes for workers, for the organization, for the economy and society.
Such organizations emerge in the absence of competition, effective control, as well as for criminal and fraudulent purposes.
These include, in particular, companies, firms - «financial pyramids», the raider organization, other organizations with a false or criminal purpose. And hopelessly uncompetitive and non-profitable organization with unclaimed products and services.
In General negative corporate human capital, the HC non-innovation and unprofitable organizations, and including, the criminal purpose, reducing the total national human capital.


The negative part of the nation's human capital is negative share of individual and corporate HC corrupt public institutions, incompetent and corrupt officials, inefficient public management technologies and systems, the ineffective portion of the systems of upbringing, education, science, health, safety, low quality of life and outdated and inefficient tools of intellectual work.
From the point of view of the theory of economic and other changes will formulate the concept of negative human capital in the following way /11/.

Added negative HC is such changes in HC, which lead to negative qualitative changes in the individual, family, organization, education, science and other components of HC, in the economy, in public institutions and in society. And reduce the cost and effectiveness of HC appropriate level, and generally, the lower the performance and quality of the nation's human capital.

Passive human capital is the share of
некреативного HC any level, which is generally focused on consumption, self-reliance and self-reproduction and is not involved in the innovation process development.
Thus, human capital on the degree of creativity, creativity and efficiency as a productive factor, can be subdivided into:
- the negative HC (actively interfering with the processes of development),
- passive HC - pure consumer,
некреативный of not participating in the innovation process,
positive, constructive, creative, innovative HC.
Between these components of the total HC there are intermediate efficiency components of HC.
The positive part HC contributed a substantial share of workaholics specialists of high level.
On the negative HC contribute their share of corrupt officials, criminals, drug addicts,
уклоняющие from work, healthy dependents etc.
Negative accumulated human capital is formed on the basis of the negative sides of the mentality of the nation, in a low culture of the population, including its market components (in particular ethics labour and entrepreneurship).
Make its own contribution to the negative attitudes of the state structure and functioning of the state institutions on the basis of lack of freedom and the underdevelopment of civil society, on the basis of investments in
псевдовоспитание, псевдообразование and псевдознания, pseudo science and псевдокультуру.
Particularly significant contribution to the negative accumulated human capital is able to make an active part of the nation - its elite, because it determines the policies and development strategies, and leads the nation in the way of any progress or stagnation (stagnation or even regression.
Negative HC dictates the additional cost of the correction of the nation's total HC to eliminate the mechanisms and obstacles to development.
Additional investments are needed for positive changes of the educational process, for growth of innovation and investment potentials for changes for the better mentality of the population and increase of its culture. In this case, additional investments are required to compensate for accumulated in the past negative equity.
Inefficient investments in HC is investing in ineffective projects or family costs associated with corruption, lack of professionalism, false or suboptimal ideology of development, troubles in the family, etc.
In fact, it is an investment in a negative component of the HC.
Inefficient investments, in particular:
- investment in learning and perception of contemporary knowledge of individuals who have zero or insignificant result;
- in inefficient and corrupt the educational process;
- the system of knowledge, which are formed around a false kernel;
- in a false or inefficient R & d, projects, innovations.
- in inefficient projects education, health, culture, public security and other.
Such investments in false or inefficient projects reduce the financing components of HC, reducing its performance, quality and cost.
Accumulated negative national human capital especially strongly begins to manifest itself in periods of bifurcations in terms of nonequilibrium States. In this case, move to another coordinate system (in particular, to another economic and political space), and HC can partially change sign and magnitude. In particular, the transition of the country to another economic and political system, with a sharp transition to a different, considerably higher level of competition and, consequently, higher level of technology (for enterprises and industries). This means that the accumulated human capital, primarily in the form of mentality, culture, ethics, labor, experience and knowledge, and also existing education, not suitable for the new challenges of a more complex level, the tasks in a different paradigm of development. And when you move to another coordinate system, the other economic and political space to the other requirements in terms of quality of human capital national HC becomes negative and passive, and is becoming an obstacle to development. And we need new additional investments in HC for its modification and development.
Positive human capital is determined as accumulated HC, providing a useful return on investment in processes of development and growth of the economy. In particular, investment in improving the quality of life of the population, growth of the innovation and institutional capacities.
The fact that HC cannot be changed in a short time, especially with a significant volume of accumulated negative HC, in essence, is the main problem of Russia's economic development from the point of view of the theory of development of the HC.
The most important component of HC is the work, its quality and performance. The quality of labor in turn significantly determined the mentality of the population, quality of life and the economic freedom index. And of course the level of technology.
Work in Russia, unfortunately, was and remains traditionally low quality. Power consumption of Russian products doubled, tripled depending on the industry is higher than in countries with efficient producers. While productivity is several times lower than in developed countries. Low-performance and low-quality work significantly reduces the cost and quality of the national HC Russia. In the end, a low-quality national human capital with big stakes negative and passive HC is now a major competitive disadvantage and a brake of development of Russia.
Create a quality HC-based mentality, which for centuries was laid diligence and law-abiding citizens and the elite, as the experience of the «Asian tigers» much easier and cheaper. And very difficult to create such on the basis of low-quality HC with a high share of negative and passive HC, that, unfortunately, is characteristic of Russia.
In the calculations the cost and effectiveness of the national HC on economic indicators of the influence of the negative and passive Cheka on indicators for the national HC are automatically taken into account through the integral indexes and macro indicators, including GDP, the share of innovative economy in the GDP index of economic freedom the index of life quality, etc.



Human capital and development index
human potential

For the calculation of the performance indices HC, cost and quality I have developed a methodology which uses the leading international indices: the index of economic freedoms (Index of Economic Freedom, IEF); the index of quality of life (QL); human development index HDI.
You also have the following indexes:
Index of science and synergetics, calculated according to the UNESCO report for 2010; index inflow HC outside entity (outflow); quality index accumulated HC (calculation - group on indicators and indices); the index of the effectiveness of the elite and the shadow economy; the index of the commodity economy, reflecting the type of raw-material economy and the country's dependence with industrial-feed transition from raw materials export.
Calculations of efficiency HC on a large number of indicators reflecting the quality and efficiency of HC, as well as the average productivity of the country.
Given the human development index (HDI), on the contrary, smoothes through a small number of assessment indices (three) and a geometric mean of the differences in the quality and efficiency HC countries of the world.
For example, for 2010. (year of publication) HDI US amounted 0.902, and Russia - 0.719 (the difference is 20%). This, of course, does not reflect the divide between countries according to the human potential and the cost per capita (and performance) of the national HC these countries.
The ratio of the performance indices HC otherwise: US index is 4 times higher than Russian, which is close to the ratio of the average labour productivity in the countries, excluding the oil and gas industry.
The main disadvantage of the HDI is that this index does not reflect the quality of education and quality of per capita GDP. In developed countries, the quality and the cost of education is much higher than in poor or developing countries.
A significant share of the oil and gas sector and the revenues it pushes up in the HDI, for example, the oil producing Arab countries. And these countries almost do not involve their national HC even in oil and gas production.
Therefore, to take into account high export revenues in the calculations of the effectiveness of national HC countries with the commodity economies me is used, the reduction factor. It is equal to, in particular, for Russia 0.75, for Kazakhstan - 0.56.
For developed countries and developing countries with diversified economies this index is equal to 1.


The historical development of countries, civilizations and HC

Western civilization is at a certain historical stage won the global historic contest with more ancient civilizations it is due to more rapid growth and development of human capital, including education, in the middle ages.
In the end of XVIII century Western Europe
перегнала half as China (and India) for per-capita GDP and twice on the index of literacy of the population. This circumstance, coupled with economic freedom, and then and democracy, became a main factor of economic success of the Europeans and the United States and other Anglo-Saxon countries.
In Japan, adhering to the centuries isolationist policy was always very high level of HC, including education and life expectancy.
In 1913, the average years of schooling of the adult population in Japan was 5.4 years, in Italy - 4.8 years, in USA - 8.3 years, and the average life expectancy of 51 years (similar to that in Europe and the USA).
In Russia, these indicators were equal: 1-1 .2 year and 33-35 years.
Therefore, Japan on the level of the starting HC was finished in the XX-th century to make a technological breakthrough and enter the number of the advanced countries of the world.
In the developed world in the late 1990s in human capital was invested about 70% of all means and in physical capital - only about 30% (table 1).
Moreover, a large proportion of investments in human capital in the advanced countries of the world provided by the government. And this is one of its most important functions in the part of the state regulation of the economy.

Table 1. Changing the structure of the total capital in the countries of the West and Japan








The beginning

of the 21st century

Physical capital








Human capital








Мельянцев В. Счастье от ума // Известия. - 2000. - 17 мая. Century Happiness from wit // Izvestiya. - 2000. - on may 17.



On the role of human capital in development processes

This section discusses industrial and scientific-technical revolution, changing technological structure of the economy and society types from the viewpoint of the theory and practice of the development of human capital (HC).
Analysis of these processes shows that the HC and the cycles of growth and development are the main factors excitation innovative waves development and a cyclic development of the world economy and of the company /2,4/.
Industrial, scientific, technological revolution carried out cultural and educated people, professionals, armed with knowledge, not with guns and bombs.
In the language of the economic theory, this means that revolutionary changes in the economy and society, major innovations were carried out on the basis of accumulated human capital in each historical period in the development of the nation, the country, civilization.
Human society gradually accumulated knowledge. On their basis to develop education and science. Was formed layer of highly professional scientific and technical, managerial and General intellectual elite, under which was a milestone in the development of mankind.
In all official policies, programmes and other documents of the development of Russia and regions of the human capital is present, but in passing. And limited to investments in education and health. By Soviet standards theory of human capital was considered bourgeois and from the ideological positions of unscientific. And something from this ridiculous negativity has survived until now.
However, theory and practice of development of human capital currently is a natural generalization of many private economic theories of development, organically combining them together.
The theory of development of HC gives the understanding of the processes of personal development, the economies of the countries of the modern society, statehood, the processes of globalization of the world community and economy. Provides opportunities for long-term forecasting of development of the world economy.
Growth HC is understood as usual, increase of their value, under the development of the HC - improving quality and productivity.


Correlation of cycles of development of the HC and development cycles
world economy

Conduct a comparison between the types of economy, the technological structures and the level and quality HC, taking the leading components of the mentality and culture, upbringing, health, education, science, efficiency elite, quality of life and working conditions.
The first industrial revolution (table. 2) and the first technological structure (1770-1830
гг.) on the basis of the long Kondratieff wave, coincide in time. This breakthrough in the development of the world economy occurred based on the rapid growth of the productive forces and the formation of capitalism.
The emergence of machinery, technologies, equipment and capitalism itself, first of all, to determine the stage of development of human capital and its main components.
Happened in this period of revolutionary development of culture, education, knowledge, medicine, Economics, improvement of religions, growth and development of the economy, development of public relations and statehood.
Capitalism with its urbanization, with the first machines and equipment, with a corresponding increase productivity, became the material embodiment of the accelerated development of human capital, productivity due to the new quality HC - intellectual power and new knowledge.
Creative, cultural and educated people, professionals in their spheres and made the industrial revolution. And let them do it, or rather pushed them on scientific, innovative, industrial and technological innovation, accumulated by previous generations, and their own knowledge, and, of course, the competition.
Competition - the desire to get more profit, the desire to get rich - forced capitalists to risk, use innovation (innovation). Use in industrial productions new devices, machines, equipment, technologies.
Arose, demanded the time, the ideology of capitalism and Protestantism. Religion creativity, search, creative culture workaholics, science, freedom and entrepreneurship.
Protestant priests themselves engaged in scientific research and stimulate interest in science and the education of his flock. This is the principal difference of Protestantism from Orthodoxy
Not by chance the first came in capitalism the most educated Protestant countries - England, France, Holland, Switzerland, Sweden and others.
Taken from Christian civilization Catholic and Orthodox countries, but also China, India, countries of the East, Latin America and others.
Competitive «competition» of civilizations and the countries of the era decided accumulated human capital, the level and quality.
The Western civilization, it is above the cost and quality and more productive. But first and foremost in quality culture, education and science, defined by greater investment in them and the process of accumulation and use of knowledge in practice.
In the end of XVIII century Western Europe
перегнала half as China literacy of the population. And twice on GDP per capita.
Education, science, culture, education, health, mentality, creativity, spirit, coupled with growing economic freedom, have become the main competitive advantages of Western civilization.
China much earlier Europeans made their largest world of discovery and innovation, and then almost fell asleep in his development of the century and the Millennium,
просунувшись in the last quarter of the twentieth century under the influence from the outside.
The industrial revolution in scientific terms based on the development and achievements of mathematics, mechanics, physics, chemistry, Economics. On the basis of the largest innovation were created and developed textile and machinery industries.
The growth in the value and quality HC (quality culture, education, health, science, business resource, quality elite and management, quality of life and state institutions etc. allowed the creation of the lathes and machines that became the largest innovative products of the time.

The main reason of the industrial revolution was the increase of knowledge and the emergence of professionals capable of inventing machines and generate innovations. Cars themselves a consequence of the release of its human capital development to a new height, the new quality level.
Of particular importance in the process of development had the mentality and culture of the people is the base of formation of the ethics of labour, entrepreneurship, the basis of the quality of labour.
Mentality and culture - one of the most important components of accumulated the people of the nation's human capital is main of intensive factors of development and a generator of innovation.
New and rapidly developing components HC - General education and developing vocational education, science, business resources, competition, Protestant culture and ideology of life and work have enabled to introduce innovations (loom, steam machine, pumps and others).
In turn innovations in professional education, economy, public administration, in public life, initiated and provided a sharp increase in labor productivity.
As a result, in the first half of the 19th century were formed industrial economy and society (table 2). At this point there are following changes in the quality of human society:
- Accumulated and practical implementation of high quality human capital, knowledge and innovation (in industry);
- An industrialization, mechanization of production, transition from manual labor to machine, from factory to factory In the economy and in other spheres of life arose competition and markets, gradually formed democracy and civil society.
- Increased the quality of life of the population; developed culture, education, science and gradually preparing the base for the next round of rapid economic growth, the development of industry and technologies;
- Was the priority development of human capital due to the increase in investments, the growth of knowledge, improvement of professional education, specialization, scientific research, growth in the number and quality of scientific organizations, increasing life expectancy.
Growth HC was due to growth of economic and political freedom, quality and efficiency of the elite, due to the processes of urbanization positive changes in culture, in the family, religion, politics.
From the point of view of human capital development, the following stages of the industrial revolution:
1) Development and improvement of efficiency of educational, scientific, managerial elite, business resource and the creation of the ideology of capitalism, which allowed, in the aggregate, generate innovation and creating machines economy demanded.
2) the Emergence of professional education and professional scientific organizations.
3) the Further qualitative development of entrepreneurial resource and free competition, that is, capitalist relations in the economy.


Table 2. Periods of technological revolutions and their main characteristic




Периоды наибольшей концентрации

качественных сдвигов

Конец 18 -

начало 19 вв.





треть 19 -

начало 20 века

(вторая промышленная


Середина 20 в.

(третья промышленная

революция -



Орудия и






Охват машинным


основных рабочих

 процессов; массовое

производство машин

Комплексная механизация,

автоматизация производства



сила и







двигатель внутреннего




атомный реактор,

реактивный двигатель





железа, чугуна




Качественная металлургия,

массовое производство

 алюминия и пластмасс




на паровозной

тяге, пароход

Дизельные суда,


и авиационный


Развитие транспортных


реактивный транспорт

и ракетная техника


связи и управления




(телеграф, телефон)

Радиосвязь и электроника




научных систем


селекция растений

и животных


сельского хоз.,



Комплексная механизация

и химизация,


начало регулирования

биологических процессов

Строительство и строительные



ручного труда,

кирпич и дерево

Первые строительные


цемент и железобетон

Индустриальные методы

строительства, использование

новых строительных

материалов и

легких конструкций









 научного труда


науки в индустрию знаний,

в отрасль  экономики



грамотности и


проф. обучения

Массовое  общее и



Значительное повышение

 среднего уровня образования,

быстрое развитие

высшего образования

Источник: Запарий В.В., Нефедов С.А. История науки и техники. Екатеринбург, 2003


At this and subsequent stages of the industrial and scientific revolutions resulted in increase of capacity of the triad drivers of growth and development of economy, society and quality of life: 1) knowledge, 2) the intelligence and professionalism, 3) innovation.
The second industrial revolution (the last third of the 19th century - beginning of XX century) managed on the basis of a new round of growth quality and level of HC. Deepened and massive vocational education, developed and specialized science, has developed and increased the culture of the people.
The second industrial revolution based on the development of HC formed 2-4-e technologies of the economy, has created a developed industrial society with a high labour productivity. She gave birth to the mass generation of innovation, which continuously increased productivity of labour. Based on the research work gradually began in the advanced countries of the knowledge industry.
The third scientific-technical revolution began with the mid-twentieth century and is still ongoing. She continued the formation of the 4th, formed 5th technological structure of economy in developed countries of the world and beginning of the 6th technological structure, its transition developed countries to post-industrial economy. Began forming in the advanced countries of the knowledge economy and information society. The globalization of the world economy. Established in developed countries, industry knowledge, which became the leading branch of the economy.
Sergey Glazyev gave in his works classification of technological structure of the economy, shown in table 3 (now researchers added 6 and 7 orders). The economy was associated with a corresponding stage of development of the HC and its new high quality. First of all, in education, in science and innovation.
Since the mid-twentieth century began creating and improving the theory HC, first of all, American economists, Theodore Schultz and Gary Becker, who received, including, for it as the Nobel prize in different times and individually. Human capital became available in theory and in practice (in real life, he always was) leading intense and complex factor of development, the Foundation of GDP growth, combined with innovation and new technologies.


Table 3. Technological modes (TU)  (macrocycles, long waves) N.D. Kondratiev






Период домини-

рования ТУ





1980-2040 (?)








Те же +



Те же

Те же + ЕС +

Канада +


Япония +


Те же (включая

всю Европу) + 

Сингапур +

Китай +  Корея +

 Индия + Бразилия +

 Мексика + РФ(?)

Ядро ТУ



водян. И






ж/д, машино-

и пароходо-




 пром., черная

металлургия  уголь


тяжмаш, ЛЭП,


 химия, авиа-

и автостроение,


Авиа-, авто-,








каучук   нефть




лазерная и

иная оптика,




космос.     газ

Ключевой фактор

















ядерная физика,




In the developed world in the late 1990s in HC invested about 70% of all means and in physical capital - only about 30%. Moreover, a leading share of investments in HC in the advanced countries of the world provided by the government. And this is one of its most important functions in the part of the state regulation of the economy.
In Russia's national wealth statistics believe in the old fashioned way, and it doesn't include the national HC. When low quality, low productivity and cost of HC investment in high-tech industry not give bestowal.
The relatively rapid progress Finnish, Irish, Japanese, Chinese (Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, China and others), Koreans support the conclusion that the Foundation for the formation of HC is the mentality and culture of the population of these countries. Hardworking, law-abiding peoples make relatively rapid strides in the development of the economy. The diligence of the people, respect for family law and stand on the first place in the process of growth and development of the economy through increased productivity and human capital in conditions of growing competition and globalization of the world economy.


5. About the methodology and the results of measurements of HC World Economic Forum

The world economic forum (World Economic Forum, WEF) issued a Report (The Human Capital Report, 2013), ratings and indices /5/ for 122 countries on national HC, major factor of development of innovative economy.
/http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_HumanCapitalReport_2013.pdf /
Dignity of the Report of the WEF are calculations of the index of HC (IHC) in the framework of a broad definition of HC. In a number of determinants HC were included education, health, labour and employment, as well as science and enabling environment. Themselves determinants are complex and are calculated according to many indicators. Just IHC contains 51 indicators.
In the first ten ranking of WEF on IHC entered Switzerland, Finland, Singapore, the Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Norway, great Britain, Denmark, Canada.
Russia ranked by total index IHC low 51st place with the value of the index IHC 0,01. Above is - Sri-Lanka, lower Jordan with Indonesia. Estonia - high-27th, Slovenia - 32, Czech Republic - 33, Lithuania - 34, Latvia - 38, China - 43, Kazakhstan - 45, Brazil 57, Ukraine - 63, Azerbaijan - 64, Armenia - 73, Georgia - 77, India - 78, Moldova - 83, South Africa - 86, kirgyzia - 92.
Private education index IHC and Russia have 41 seats (value 0,377); health - 62 (0,163); labour force and employment - 66 (-0,163); supportive environment - 63 (-0,201). For comparison, in Switzerland the General index - 1,455; education - 4th place (UAH 1,313); health -1 (0,977); labour force -1 (1,736); supportive environment - 2 (1,793). Finland - 2 place (1,406); education - 1 (1,601); health - 9 (0,844); labor - 3 (1,250); supportive environment - 1 (1,926). Minus the value of a private index HC mean very low quality indicator.
Special attention in their research experts WEF paid talents, that is strong professionals, which is natural. Specialists, talents, successful researchers active core HC. They will need to create suitable conditions so that they would not leave the country with the best quality of life and labor. To evaluate the quality and productivity of specialists of the country, its talents WEF experts used the following indicators: the country's potential to attract talents; the country's ability to retain talent; convenience of search of organizations specialists; innovative potential; cost effectiveness of talents and innovation system.
The country's potential to attract talents Russia 78th place in the rankings of the WEF, on the ability to retain talent - 95. The innovative potential - 57, introduction of latest technologies firm-level - 110, articles in scientific and technical journals - 39, training - 76. Entirely in the Russian Federation are very low ranks, except for the number of articles.


Raise and hold in the country talents, to create innovations and advanced technologies to strengthen and implement the achievements of science in the production of the Russian Federation, unfortunately, not able to due to low efficiency of the state and HC.
The basis of practical infirmity of Russian science, the degradation of education, loss country talents and the best specialists lie ignoring the rule of the leading role of the quality of life for the development process. And the decisive role of HC. Hence extremely low in terms of GDP share financing of culture, education, health, science, the quality of life. In budgets of all levels on 2014-16 years plans to reduce funding for this critical articles. In the ranking in GDP share of health expenditures Russia (3.9% of GDP in 2012, Rosstat data, 165 place in the company of Kazakhstan and India. In the ranking of education expenditure of 3% of GDP in 2012.) - 141st together with Indonesia. Investment in science in Russia is slightly above 1% of GDP. And 2-4 times lower as a percentage of GDP than in the leading countries of the OECD.
On the ease environment for talents and specialists of Russia on a low 66 place with a negative index (- 0,163), China - 47 with a positive index (0,147). Therefore, and go even Russian pensioners in the far East to live out its life in China, Bulgaria and other countries. What here to speak about the talents.
I have developed a close method of calculating the Index of efficiency of HC will be covered in the next section. And also the methodology of the assessment of its value, which is not in the Report of the WEF. For the calculations used by a number of international indicators and determinants, as well as private indexes.
In the global competitiveness ranking talents (GTCI) and the development of human capital (Human Capital, HC) 103 countries of the Russian Federation on the 51st place /13/. The USSR was the talent is much higher in the world. http://global-indices.insead.edu/gtci/
In the Budget message of the President of the Russian Federation for 2013 registered: «failed to fully <...> to increase the share of funds allocated to the development of human capital and infrastructure.»
The exact diagnosis is made, however, the negative process of reducing the funding HC, its degradation, increasing the deterioration of infrastructure of cities - the main sources of growth HC - continue. Investments in HC are the lowest among the countries with a similar level of development, not to mention the USA (the cost of medicine 17.9% of GDP), OECD and the EU.


6. Measurement of performance and value
national human capital (HC)

The section contains developed by me methods of calculation of index of efficiency of HC and methodology of the assessment of its value. The calculations used the international and other special indices /2-4,5/.
This approach enables us to quantify the national HC through the use of integrated country of international indicators that, on the one hand, simplifies the calculations, and on the other - makes them more transparent and reliable.
Link human capital HC investments is determined by the formula:

HC = f(j,q,I,X) = cI (1)

where j is the index of the quality of labour in a broad definition, q - quality index accumulated HC, I - investments in HC, X - other variables that affect HC, including the accumulated HC.
Efficiency HC c reflects the integral performance HC, which, in turn, determines the average productivity in sectors with a high added value in the production of knowledge. A value of c can be greater than 1 for the most developed countries with a very high quality HC and less or much less than 1 for developing countries.
Numerically c reflects the number of units HC obtained per unit of investment. A value of c is determined by the formula:

c = 0,5(j + q), k (2)

k = (GDP - Exports of natural products ) / GDP, (3)

where k is the index of the commodity economy, reflecting the commodity nature of the economy.
Index of labour j, in its enlarged definition reflects the economic freedom, including ethics and conditions of employment, entrepreneurship, the effectiveness of state institutions.
Index q reflects the efficiency of the creative labor resources and accumulated HC.
A widely used, standardized index of economic freedoms (Index of Economic Freedom, IEF), as shown by the analysis and calculations, reflects on the merits and numerically index of the quality of labour in a broad definition, j. Therefore, to simplify the calculations, the increase of their reliability and representativeness in the formula (2) use the index on the IEF.
Index of economic freedom is calculated on the basis of the 10 components: business Freedom, trade Freedom, Fiscal freedom, government Spending, Freedom to set prices, Freedom investment Freedom financial sector, Protection of property rights, corruption and Freedom of the labour market.
They IEF reflect ethics, quality and productivity (including entrepreneurial, managerial, intellectual work) and conditions for the free and effective implementation. Therefore, the index of IEF used for payments in shares of unit of the index of economic freedom, which simplifies the calculations:

j = IEF/100. (5)

Index of quality HC unites impact on the efficiency index of HC another group of components (factors):

q = lhsie , (6)

where l is the index of the quality of life of the population, the h - index inflow (outflow) HC; s is the index of science and synergies; i - the human development index (HDI); e - index of efficiency of the national elite.
Coefficient inflow  HC equal to:

h = (initial number of scientists + inflow (outflow) scientists)/Ref. the number of scientists. (7)

Index of science and synergy:

s = (1+10n + w), (8)

where n is the gross domestic investment in science in shares of GDP (in the terminology of the UNESCO
ВРНИОКР), w is a country's share in total world investment in science.

Index of efficiency of the national elite (state):

e = (GDP (Shadow economy)/GDP. (9)

Thus, for the calculation of the performance indices HC used international indices: the index of economic freedoms (Index of Economic Freedom, IEF); the index of quality of life (QL); human development index HDI; and the index of science and synergetics, calculated according to the UNESCO report for 2010; index inflow HC (outflow); quality index accumulated HC (calculation - group on indicators and indices); the index of the effectiveness of the elite and the shadow economy; the index of the commodity economy, reflecting the type of raw-material economy and the country's dependence with industrial-feed transition from raw materials export.


The second method for calculating the HC is much simpler: the share of innovative economy in the GDP-is an integral index of innovativeness, efficiency HC and economy. And it reflects the contribution of the creative economy in the workforce (innovation), industry knowledge and determines the value added HC.
To take into account high export revenues in the calculations of the effectiveness of national HC countries with the commodity economies is used, the reduction factor. It is equal to, in particular, for Russia 0.75, for Kazakhstan - 0.56. For developed countries and developing countries with diversified economies this index is equal to 1.
The level of corruption is recognized through sub-indices IEF, QL, quality index elite and the shadow economy index inflow of HC and others.
Competitive advantage of the United States is in an influx of high-quality HC from around the world that provides competitive advantages in the development of science, high technologies and industry knowledge. In the United States created the conditions most attractive for researchers, innovators and other specialists.

Table 4. The value of national HC in 2010




HC per capita
thousand dollars, PPP




United Kingdom





















Sources: Yuri Korchagin. Measurement of national HC


The cost accumulated over 30 years of national HC per capita, calculated by the methods set forth above, by 2011 amounted to 14.5 thousand dollars and in 87 times less American, 39 times less than the German, 42 times that of Japan, 1.3 times less than China (table 4).
Evaluation of the world Bank - 30.5 thousand dollars per capita for countries with the transformational economies, including Russia.
The value of national HC can be roughly estimate the share of the innovation economy. In this case, for developed countries, the differences with table 4 does not exceed 20%, and for developing countries depend on the correctness of the estimation of the share of innovative economy in the GDP. For Russia this share was calculated me as the average of three indicators: the number of innovative enterprises in industry (9.4%), the share of high-tech products in exports (5.8%), the share of high-tech products in the total volume of industrial production in Russia (according to the Ministry of economic development of 1.4% in 2010).
Accumulated over 30 years, the cost of the Russian national human capital per capita, calculated on a constant share of innovative products in the GDP of 5.5%, is 17400 dollars. The discrepancy with the data of the first methodology is 20%.
The main reasons for the backwardness of Russia in the cost of HC per capita: low quality HC, low investments in its components; negative paradigm of development, the priorities of which are not directed at improving the quality of life and HC. In the majority of countries the cost, quality and effectiveness of national HC grew in recent decades, and in Russia they declined. Over the last 20 years the share of investments in culture, education and science in Russia as a share of GDP declined.
The return on investment in science in the Russian Federation in comparison with other countries is low. The main causes of degradation, the weakness and inefficiency of science, lack of demand for innovation economy. The country practically has no competitive markets - the main driver of innovation. The share of innovative enterprises in Russia (less than 10%) than in any of the States of the EEC. For comparison: in Estonia, their share makes up 47%, in Germany - 73%, in Belgium, Denmark, Austria - about 60%. The share of innovative industrial products in Russia is only 1.8% of the total production.
On the ease environment for talents and specialists of Russia on a low 66 place with a negative index (- 0,163), China - 47 with a positive index (0,147). Therefore, and go even pensioners in the far East to live out its life in China, as well as in Bulgaria and other countries. What here to speak about the talents.
The basis of practical infirmity of Russian science, the degradation of education, loss country talents and the best specialists lie ignoring the rule of the leading role of the quality of life for the development process. And the decisive role of HC. Hence extremely low in terms of GDP share financing of culture, education, health, science, the quality of life. In budgets of all levels on 2014-16 years plans to reduce funding for this critical articles. In the ranking in GDP share of health expenditures Russia (3.9% of GDP in 2012, Rosstat data, 165 place in the company of Kazakhstan and India. In the ranking of education expenditure of 3% of GDP in 2012.) - 141st together with Indonesia. Investment in science in Russia is slightly above 1% of GDP. And 2-4 times lower as a percentage of GDP than in the leading countries of the OECD.



1.Корчагин Ю.А. Российский человеческий капитал - фактор развития или деградации? - Воронеж: ЦИРЭ, 2005. Y. Korchagin Russian human capital is a factor of development or degradation? - Voronezh: ЦИРЭ, 2005.


2. Человеческий капитал как интенсивный социально-экономический фактор развития личности, экономики, общества и государственности. Human capital intensive socio-economic factor of the development of personality, the economy, society and statehood.



3. Корчагин Ю.А. Перспективы развития России, человеческий капитал и инновационная экономика. Y. Korchagin Perspectives of Russia's development, human capital and innovation economy.



4. Корчагин Юрий. Циклы развития человеческого капитала как драйверы инновационных волн. Yuri Korchagin. Cycles of development of human capital as drivers of innovation waves.


5.  The Human Capital Report, World Economic Forum (WEF), 2013.

6.Корчагин Ю. А. Современная экономика России.- Ростов-на-Дону: Феникс, 2008 ISBN 978-5-222-14027-7. Korchagin Yu. A. Modern economy of Russia.- Rostov-on-don, Phoenix, 2008

7.Корчагин Ю.А., Маличенко И.П. Инвестиции и инвестиционный анализ. - Ростов-на-Дону: Феникс, 2010. Y. Korchagin, Маличенко I.P. Investments and investment analysis. - Rostov-on-don, Phoenix, 2010.

ISBN: 978-5-222-17143-1

8.Корчагин Юрий. Измерение национального HC


9.Нестеров Л., Аширова Г. Национальное богатство и человеческий капитал. // ВЭ, 2003, № 2;

10. И. Соболева. Парадоксы измерения человеческого капитала. ВЭ, 2009, № 9.

11.Корчагин Ю. А. Инвестиционная стратегия. - Ростов-на-Дону: Феникс,

2006 ISBN 5-222-08440-x. Korchagin Yu. A. Investment strategy. - Rostov-on-don, Phoenix,

12.Корчагин Ю.А. Широкое понятие человеческого капитала. The broad concept of human capital.


13. Competitiveness index Global Talent. Индекс конкурентоспособности Глобальный Талант (GTCI). http://www.insead.edu/home/



Other works on the subject http://www.lerc.ru/











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